April Update from Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Author: Alvitta Ottley, Washington University in St. Louis
Keywords: visualization, individual differences, personality, cognitive abilities, user modeling
Abstract: This book presents my current understanding of how individual differences in personality interact with visualization use and draws from recent research in the Visualization, Human-Computer Interaction, and Psychology communities. We focus on the specific designs and tasks for which there is concrete evidence of performance divergence due to personality. Additionally, we highlight an exciting research agenda that is centered around creating tailored visualization systems that are aligned with people’s abilities. The purpose of this book is to underscore the need to consider individual differences when designing and evaluating visualization systems and to call attention to this critical research direction.
Games and Computational Intelligence
Author: Hamna Aslam and Joseph Alexander Brown, Innopolis University
Keywords: game design, human-computing interfaces, affordances, playtesting, user experience
Abstract: Playtesting and players’ affordances are the focus of this book. This book is not just about the playtest procedures but also demonstrates how they lead to the conclusions obtained when considering data sets. The playtest process or playtest stories differ according to the hypothesis under investigation. We cover examples of playtesting to identify the impact of human factors, such as age and gender, to examine a player’s preferences for game objects’ design and colors. The book details topics to reflect on possible emotional outcomes of the player at the early stages of game design as well as the methodology for presenting questions to players in such a way as to elicit authentic feedback.
This book is intended mainly for game designers, researchers, and developers. However, it provides a general understanding of affordances and human factors that can be informative for readers working in any domain.
Data Management
Author: Zoi Kaoudi, Technische Universität Berlin; Ioana Manolescu, INRIA; Stamatis Zampetakis, TIBCO Orchestra Networks
Keywords: RDF, cloud computing, MapReduce, key-value stores, query optimization, reasoning
Abstract: In this book, we study the state-of-the-art RDF data management in cloud environments and parallel/distributed architectures that were not necessarily intended for the cloud, but can easily be deployed therein. After providing a comprehensive background on RDF and cloud technologies, we explore four aspects that are vital in an RDF data management system: data storage, query processing, query optimization, and reasoning. We conclude the book with a discussion on open problems and future directions.
Materials and Optics
Authors: Ghanshyam Pilania, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasanna V. Balachandran, University of Virginia; James E. Gubernatis and Turab Lookman, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Keywords: materials representations, databases, materials design, materials discovery, multi-objective learning, multi-fidelity learning
Abstract:  Machine learning methods are changing the way we design and discover new materials. This book provides an overview of approaches successfully used in addressing materials problems (alloys, ferroelectrics, dielectrics) with a focus on probabilistic methods, such as Gaussian processes, to accurately estimate density functions. The authors, who have extensive experience in this interdisciplinary field, discuss generalizations where more than one competing material property is involved or data with differing degrees of precision/costs or fidelity/expense needs to be considered.
Human Language Technologies
Author: Shashi Narayan, University of Edinburgh; Claire Gardent, CNRS/LORIA, Nancy
Keywords: text production, text generation, deep learning, neural networks, meaning-to-text, data-to-text, text-to-text, recurrent neural networks, sequence-to-sequence models, attention, copy, coverage, AMR generation, RDF generation, verbalise, simplification, compression, paraphrasing, dialogue generation, summarisation, content selection, adequacy, input understanding, sentence representation, document representation, communication goals, deep generators, reinforcement learning, evaluation, grammatical, fluent, meaning-preserving, BLEU, ROUGE, relevant, coherent
Abstract: Text production has many applications. It is used, for instance, to generate dialogue turns from dialogue moves, verbalise the content of knowledge bases, or generate English sentences from rich linguistic representations, such as dependency trees or abstract meaning representations. Text production is also at work in text-to-text transformations such as sentence compression, sentence fusion, paraphrasing, sentence (or text) simplification, and text summarisation. This book offers an overview of the fundamentals of neural models for text production. In particular, we elaborate on three main aspects of neural approaches to text production: how sequential decoders learn to generate adequate text, how encoders learn to produce better input representations, and how neural generators account for task-specific objectives. Indeed, each text-production task raises a slightly different challenge (e.g, how to take the dialogue context into account when producing a dialogue turn, how to detect and merge relevant information when summarising a text, or how to produce a well-formed text that correctly captures the information contained in some input data in the case of data-to-text generation). We outline the constraints specific to some of these tasks and examine how existing neural models account for them. More generally, this book considers text-to-text, meaning-to-text, and data-to-text transformations. It aims to provide the audience with a basic knowledge of neural approaches to text production and a roadmap to get them started with the related work. The book is mainly targeted at researchers, graduate students, and industrials interested in text production from different forms of inputs.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
Author: Zhiyuan Liu, Tsinghua University; Jie Zhou, Tsinghua University
Keywords: deep graph learning, deep learning, graph neural network, graph analysis, graph convolutional network, graph recurrent network, graph residual network
Abstract: This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic concepts, models, and applications of graph neural networks. It starts with the introduction of the vanilla GNN model. Then several variants of the vanilla model are introduced such as graph convolutional networks, graph recurrent networks, graph attention networks, graph residual networks, and several general frameworks. Variants for different graph types and advanced training methods are also included. As for the applications of GNNs, the book categorizes them into structural, non-structural, and other scenarios, and then it introduces several typical models on solving these tasks. Finally, the closing chapters provide GNN open resources and the outlook of several future directions.
The Semantic Web: Theory and Technology
Author: Laura Po, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Nikos Bikakis, University of Ioannina, Greece; Federico Desimoni, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; George Papastefanatos, ATHENA Research Center, Greece
Keywords: linked data, data visualization, visual analytics, big data, visualization tools, web of data, semantic web, data exploration, information visualization, usability evaluation, human-computer interaction
Abstract: Linked Data (LD) is a well-established standard for publishing and managing structured information on the Web, gathering and bridging together knowledge from different scientific and commercial domains. The development of Linked Data Visualization techniques and tools has been followed as the primary means for the analysis of this vast amount of information by data scientists, domain experts, business users, and citizens.
This book covers a wide spectrum of visualization issues, providing an overview of the recent advances in this area, focusing on techniques, tools, and use cases of visualization and visual analysis of LD. It presents the basic concepts related to data visualization and the LD technologies, the techniques employed for data visualization based on the characteristics of data techniques for Big Data visualization, use tools and use cases in the LD context, and finally a thorough assessment of the usability of these tools under different scenarios.
The purpose of this book is to offer a complete guide to the evolution of LD visualization for interested readers from any background and to empower them to get started with the visual analysis of such data. This book can serve as a course textbook or a primer for all those interested in LD and data visualization.
Mechanical Engineering
Author: Shuvra Das, University of Detroit Mercy
Keywords: mechatronics, multi-disciplinary, modeling and simulation, MATLAB, Simscape, physical system modeling, system response, controls, time response, frequency response
Abstract: This short text addresses the two needs: it is written for an audience who will likely have good knowledge and comfort in one of the several domains that we will consider, but not necessarily all; the book will also serve as a guide for the students to learn how to develop mechatronic system models with Simscape (a MATLAB tool box). The book uses many examples from different engineering domains to demonstrate how to develop mechatronic system models and what type of information can be obtained from the analyses.
Author: Snehashish Chakraverty and Uddhaba Biswal, National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Keywords: nanofluid, volume fraction, fluid, nanoparticles, semi-porous channel, HPM, LSM, Galerkin, orthogonal polynomials
Abstract: In general, nanofluid is suspension of nanometer-sized particle in base fluids such as water, oil, ethylene glycol mixture etc. Nanofluid has more thermal conductivity compared to the base fluids. As such, the nanofluid has more heat transfer capacity than the base fluids. In order to study nanofluid flow problems, we need to solve related nonlinear differential equations analytically or numerically. But in most cases, we may not get an analytical solution. Accordingly, the related nonlinear differential equations need to be solved by efficient numerical methods.
Accordingly, this book addresses various challenging problems related to nanofluid flow. In this regard, different efficient numerical methods such as homotopy perturbation method, Galerkin’s method, and least square method are included. Further, the above practical problems are validated in special cases. We believe that this book will be very beneficial for readers who want firsthand knowledge on how to solve nanofluid flow problems.
Engineering, Science, and Technology
Author: Jeffrey H. Williams, Formerly at Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
Keywords: origin of science
Abstract: History and archaeology tell us that when our far ancestors began to settle in localized groups, they codified their lives and experiences, and formed a collective for mutual support. This proto-civilization would have arisen from each individual’s questions about the world, and their attempt to understand themselves and their place in the world. These groups, or tribes, evolved rules of conduct to facilitate communal living, and made a calendar for the group’s celebration of harvests, and other events upon which the group was utterly dependent.
This process of social evolution is the origin of religion, and of a magical way of looking at Nature. Eventually, this developing worldview was also the origin of science, which is our investigation of Nature to understand something of what is happening around us, and to use this knowledge to ensure our survival in a violent, indifferent Universe. After all, science and religion seek to answer the same question: Why and how is the natural world the way it is? This book seeks to show how science evolved from religion and magic, in response to a need to understand Nature.
Mathematics and Statistics
Author: Snehashish Chakraverty, Rajarama Mohan Jena, and Subrat Kumar Jena, National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Keywords: fractional calculus, fuzzy set theory, time-fractional differential equations, mathematical models
Abstract: The subject of fractional calculus has gained considerable popularity and importance during the past three decades, mainly due to its validated applications in various fields of science and engineering. It is a generalization of ordinary differentiation and integration to arbitrary (non-integer) order. The fractional derivative has been used in various physical problems, such as frequency-dependent damping behavior of structures, biological systems, motion of a plate in a Newtonian fluid, λμ controller for the control of dynamical systems, and so on. It is challenging to obtain the solution (both analytical and numerical) of related nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. So for the last few decades, a great deal of attention has been directed towards the solution for these kind of problems. Different methods have been developed by other researchers to analyze the above problems with respect to crisp (exact) parameters.
However, in real-life applications such as for biological problems, it is not always possible to get exact values of the associated parameters due to errors in measurements/experiments, observations, and many other errors. Therefore, the associated parameters and variables may be considered uncertain. Here, the uncertainties are considered interval/fuzzy. Therefore, the development of appropriate efficient methods and their use in solving the mentioned uncertain problems are the recent challenge.
In view of the above, this book is a new attempt to rigorously present a variety of fuzzy (and interval) time-fractional dynamical models with respect to different biological systems using computationally efficient method. The authors believe this book will be helpful to undergraduates, graduates, researchers, industry, faculties, and others throughout the globe.
Human-Centered Informatics
Author: Morten Hertzum, University of Copenhagen
Keywords: usability testing, usability evaluation methods, usability, user experience, user testing, thinking aloud, user-centered design, human-computer interaction
Abstract: It is all too common for products, such as consumer appliances, information systems, mobile apps, and websites, to cause trouble and frustration. For example, products are often difficult or dull to use, make tasks less flexible or more tedious, shift attention away from important or gratifying activities, and simply fail to deliver expected benefits or experiences. By identifying such trouble and frustration in the lab prior to widespread use, usability tests have proven a valuable method for informing redesign efforts. A usability test consists of having test users exercise a product and think aloud about their experience using it, while an evaluator observes the users and listens in on their thoughts. On this basis, the evaluator identifies usability problems and assesses the user experience. This book describes how to conduct usability tests. After providing context about concepts and testing, the main chapters of the book cover the steps involved in preparing for a usability test, executing the test sessions, and analyzing the test data. Throughout the chapters, concrete guidance is balanced against more complex issues with an impact on the robustness, validity, completeness, impact, and cost of a usability test. The book concludes with an outlook to variations of usability testing and alternatives to it.
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