Synthesis and Colloquium Digital Libraries Update

Digital Circuits and Systems
Author: Steven F. Barrett, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY
Keywords: Arduino microcontroller, Arduino UNO R3, LilyPad, Arduino Mega 2560, microcontroller interfacing
Abstract: This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open-source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. In June 2019, Joel Claypool and I met to plan the fourth edition of Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone! Our goal has been to provide an accessible book on the rapidly changing world of Arduino for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To make the book more accessible to better serve our readers, we decided to change our approach and provide a series of smaller volumes. Each volume is written to a specific audience. This book, Arduino I: Getting Started is written for those looking for a quick tutorial on the Arduino environment, platforms, interface techniques, and applications. Arduino II will explore advanced techniques, applications, and systems design. Arduino III will explore Arduino applications in the Internet of Things (IoT). Arduino I: Getting Started covers three different Arduino products: the Arduino UNO R3 equipped with the Microchip ATmega328, the Arduino Mega 2560 equipped with the Microchip ATmega2560, and the wearable Arduino LilyPad.
Author: Tom G. Mackay, University of Edinburgh and Akhlesh Lakhtakia, The Pennsylvania State University
Keywords: transfer matrix, bianisotropy, periodic nonhomogeneity, rigorous coupled-wave approach, reflectance, transmittance, slab, matrix ordinary differential equation
Abstract: The transfer-matrix method (TMM) in electromagnetics and optics is a powerful and convenient mathematical formalism for determining the planewave reflection and transmission characteristics of an infinitely extended slab of a linear material. While the TMM was introduced for a homogeneous uniaxial dielectric-magnetic material in the 1960s, and subsequently extended for multilayered slabs, it has more recently been developed for the most general linear materials, namely bianisotropic materials. By means of the rigorous coupled-wave approach, slabs that are periodically nonhomogeneous in the thickness direction can also be accommodated by the TMM. In this book an overview of the TMM is presented for the most general contexts as well as for some for illustrative simple cases. Key theoretical results are given; for derivations, the reader is referred to the references at the end of each chapter. Albums of numerical results are also provided, and the computer code used to generate these results are provided in an appendix.
Engineering, Science, and Technology
Author: John Lekner, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
Keywords: electromagnetic beams, Maxwell equations, classical electrodynamics, polarization, chirality
Abstract: The theory of electromagnetic beams is presented in a simple and physical way, with all necessary mathematics explained in the text. The topics covered are in free-space classical electrodynamics, but contact is made with quantum theory in proofs that causal beams of various kinds can be viewed as superpositions of photons. This follows from explicit expressions for the energy, momentum and angular momentum per unit length for each type of beam. The properties of beams in the focal region, of special experimental and theoretical interest, are discussed in detail.
There are eight chapters: on Fundamentals, Beam-like solutions of the Helmholtz equation, Electromagnetic beams, Polarization, Chirality, Comparison of electromagnetic beams, a chapter on Sound beams and particle beams (to show the similarities to and differences from the vector electromagnetic beams), and a final chapter on Measures of focal extent. Ten Appendices cover mathematical or associated physical topics.
Human Language Technologies
Authors: Anna Atefeh Farzindar, University of Southern California and Diana Inkpen, University of Ottawa
Keywords: social media, social networking, natural language processing, social computing, big data, semantic analysis, artificial intelligence, deep learning
Abstract:  In recent years, online social networking has revolutionized interpersonal communication. The newer research on language analysis in social media has been increasingly focusing on the latter’s impact on our daily lives, both on a personal and a professional level. Natural language processing (NLP) is one of the most promising avenues for social media data processing. It is a scientific challenge to develop powerful methods and algorithms that extract relevant information from a large volume of data coming from multiple sources and languages in various formats or in free form. This book will discuss the challenges in analyzing social media texts in contrast with traditional documents.
In this third edition of the book, the authors added information about recent progress in NLP for social media applications, including more about the modern techniques provided by deep neural networks (DNNs) for modeling language and analyzing social media data.
Author: Rotem Dror, Lotem Peled-Cohen, Segev Shlomov, and Roi Reichart, Technion — Israel Institute of Technology
Keywords: Natural Language Processing, statistics, statistical significance, hypothesis testing, algorithm comparison, deep neural network models, replicability analysis
Abstract: Data-driven experimental analysis has become the main evaluation tool of Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms. In fact, in the last decade, it has become rare to see an NLP paper, particularly one that proposes a new algorithm, that does not include extensive experimental analysis, and the number of involved tasks, datasets, domains, and languages is constantly growing. This emphasis on empirical results highlights the role of statistical significance testing in NLP research: If we, as a community, rely on empirical evaluation to validate our hypotheses and reveal the correct language processing mechanisms, we better be sure that our results are not coincidental.
The goal of this book is to discuss the main aspects of statistical significance testing in NLP. Our guiding assumption throughout the book is that the basic question NLP researchers and engineers deal with is whether or not one algorithm can be considered better than another one. This question drives the field forward as it allows the constant progress of developing better technology for language processing challenges. In practice, researchers and engineers would like to draw the right conclusion from a limited set of experiments, and this conclusion should hold for other experiments with datasets they do not have at their disposal or that they cannot perform due to limited time and resources. The book hence discusses the opportunities and challenges in using statistical significance testing in NLP, from the point of view of experimental comparison between two algorithms. We cover topics such as choosing an appropriate significance test for the major NLP tasks, dealing with the unique aspects of significance testing for non-convex deep neural networks, accounting for a large number of comparisons between two NLP algorithms in a statistically valid manner (multiple hypothesis testing), and, finally, the unique challenges yielded by the nature of the data and practices of the field.
Human-Centered Informatics
Author: Alan Dix, Computational Foundry, Swansea University, Wales
Keywords: statistics, human-computer interaction, quantitative data, evaluation, hypothesis testing, Bayesian statistics significance testing, p-hacking
Abstract: Many people find statistics confusing, and perhaps even more confusing given recent publicity about problems with traditional p-values and alternative statistical techniques including confidence intervals and Bayesian statistics. This book aims to help readers navigate this morass: to understand the debates, to be able to read and assess other people’s statistical reports, and make appropriate choices when designing and analysing their own experiments, empirical studies, and other forms of quantitative data gathering.
Author: Gilbert Cockton, University of Sunderland
Keywords: design theory, design research, creative practice, design process, design management, critical creative design, design reflection, design planning
Abstract: This book develops an appropriate common language for truly interdisciplinary teams involved in design. Design now has many meanings. For some, it is the creation of value. For others, it is the conception and creation of artefacts. For still others, it is fitting things to people. These differences reflect disciplinary values that both overlap and diverge. All involve artefacts: we always design things. Each definition considers people and purpose in some way. Each handles evaluation differently, measuring against aesthetics, craft standards, specifications, sales, usage experiences, or usage outcomes. There are both merits and risks in these differences, without an appropriate balance. Poor balance can result from professions claiming the centre of design for their discipline, marginalising others. Process can also cause imbalance when allocating resources to scheduled stages. Balance is promoted by replacing power centres with power sharing, and divisive processes with integrative progressions. A focus on worth guides design towards worthwhile experiences and outcomes that generously exceed expectations.
Author: Gilbert Cockton, University of Sunderland
Keywords: worth-focused design, value-centred design, value-sensitive design, design synthesis, critical creative design, interaction design, innovation
Abstract: This book introduces the concept of worth for design teams, relates it to experiences and outcomes, and describes how to focus on worth when researching and expressing design opportunities for generous worth. Truly interdisciplinary teams also need an appropriate common language, which was developed in the companion book Worth-Focused Design, Book 1: Balance, Integration, and Generosity. Its new lexicon for design progressions enables a framework for design and evaluation that works well with a worth focus.
Design now has different meanings based upon the approach of different disciplinary practices. For some, it is the creation of value. For others, it is the conception and creation of artefacts. For still others, it is fitting things to people. While each of these design foci has merits, there are risks in not having an appropriate balance across professions that claim the centre of design for their discipline and marginalise others. Generosity is key to the best creative design—delivering unexpected worth beyond documented needs, wants, or pain points. Truly interdisciplinary design must also balance and integrate approaches across several communities of practice, which is made easier by common ground. Worth provides a productive focus for this common ground and is symbiotic with balanced, integrated, and generous (BIG) practices. Practices associated with balance and integration for worth-focused generosity are illustrated in several case studies that have used approaches in this book, complemented them with additional practices.
Materials and Optics
Author: Arthur R. McGurn, Western Michigan University
Keywords: acoustics, electrodynamics, optics, nanoscience, device technology, photonic crystals, phononic crystals, plasmonics
Abstract: Introduction to Photonic and Phononic Crystals and Metamaterials, by Arthur R. McGurn, presents a study of the fundamental properties of optical and acoustic materials which have been of recent interest in nanoscience and device technology. The level of the presentations is appropriate for advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and researchers not directly involved in the field. References are given to guide the reader to more advanced study in these fields.
Discussions of the physics of photonic and phononic crystals focus on the transmission properties of optical and acoustic radiation arising from their diffractive interaction in these engineered materials. The frequency transmission and non-transmission bands of radiation are explained in terms of the symmetry properties of the photonic and phononic artificial crystal structures. Basic applications of these properties to a variety of their technological applications are examined.
The physics of metamaterials is discussed along with their relationships to the ideas of resonance. Properties of negative index of refraction, perfect lens, and unusual optical effects the new optics of metamaterial media makes available are examined. Related effects in acoustics are also covered.
Basic principles of surface acoustic and electromagnetic waves are explained. These form an introduction to the fundamental ideas of the recently developing fields of plasmonics and surface acoustics.
Mathematics and Statistics
Author: Snehashish Chakraverty and Saudamini Rout, National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Keywords: interval arithmetic, fuzzy set theory, interval dependency problem, affine arithmetic, fuzzy-affine arithmetic, static and dynamic problems, system of linear equations, generalize eigenvalue problem, standard eigenvalue problem, nonlinear eigenvalue problem, polynomial eigenvalue problem, damped spring-mass system, structural dynamics, multi-story frame structure
Abstract: Uncertainty is an inseparable component of almost every measurement and occurrence when dealing with real-world problems. Finding solutions to real-life problems in an uncertain environment is a difficult and challenging task. As such, this book addresses the solution of uncertain static and dynamic problems based on affine arithmetic approaches. Affine arithmetic is one of the recent developments designed to handle such uncertainties in a different manner which may be useful for overcoming the dependency problem and may compute better enclosures of the solutions. Further, uncertain static and dynamic problems turn into interval and/or fuzzy linear/nonlinear systems of equations and eigenvalue problems, respectively. Accordingly, this book includes newly developed efficient methods to handle the said problems based on the affine and interval/fuzzy approach. Various illustrative examples concerning static and dynamic problems of structures have been investigated in order to show the reliability and efficacy of the developed approaches.
Wave Phenomena in the Physical Sciences
Author: Stanislav Babak, CNRS
Keywords: general relativity, data analysis, LIGO, LISA, PTA, gravitational waves, black holes, pulsar timing array, analytical relativity, numerical relativity
Abstract: This book is to help post-graduate students to get into gravitational wave astronomy. We assume the knowledge of General Relativity theory, though we will concentrate on the physics and often omit mathematically strict derivations. We provide references to already existing literature where possible, this helps us to see a broad picture, skipping the details. The uniqueness of this book is in that it covers three frequency bands and three major world-wide efforts to detect gravitational waves. The LIGO and Virgo scientific collaboration has detected first gravitational waves and the merger of black holes become now almost a routine. We do expect many discoveries yet to come, especially in the joined gravitational and electromagnetic observations. LISA, the space-based gravitational wave observatory, will be launched around 2034 and will be able to detect thousands of GW sources in the milli-Hz band. Pulsar timing array observations have accumulated 20-years’ worth of data and we expected detection of GWs in the nano-Hz band within the next decade. We describe the gravitational wave sources and data analysis techniques in each frequency band.
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